It was found dissolved in crude petroleum in 1864 by Edmund Ronalds, who was the first to describe its properties. Butane can be easily represented by the general formula of alkanes which is CnH 2n+2 where n = any positive integer or number of carbon atoms. The maximum adiabatic flame temperature of butane with air is 2,243 K (1,970 °C; 3,578 °F). It is partially soluble in water, and is commonly used as an industrial solvent. Butane definition, a colorless, flammable gas, C4H10, a saturated aliphatic existing in two isometric forms: used chiefly in the manufacture of rubber and as fuel. Both compounds occur in natural gas and in crude oil and are formed in large quantities in the refining of petroleum to produce gasoline. If bromine and butane are brought together there is no reaction. It is shipped as a liquefied gas under its vapor pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane (or "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers. While hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are toxic, they are present in levels so low that suffocation and fire hazard by the butane becomes a concern far before toxicity. Butane, either of two colourless, odourless, gaseous hydrocarbons (compounds of carbon and hydrogen), members of the series of paraffinic hydrocarbons. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. Don't be … The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid, named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane. The relative rates of the chlorination is partially explained by the differing bond dissociation energies, 425 and 411 kJ/mol for the two types of C-H bonds. Isobutane is a structural isomer of butane. The '-ene' refers to an alkene, so we know that butene's structure must include a carbon double bond. [19] "Sudden sniffer's death" syndrome, first described by Bass in 1970,[20] is the most common single cause of solvent related death, resulting in 55% of known fatal cases. [citation needed], Inhalation of butane can cause euphoria, drowsiness, unconsciousness, asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmia, fluctuations in blood pressure and temporary memory loss, when abused directly from a highly pressurized container, and can result in death from asphyxiation and ventricular fibrillation. Butane is a hydrocarbon, made up of only hydrogen and carbon, and so is a compound. They are hydrocarbons because these compounds are composed only of C and H atoms. Butane is an organic compound that is either of two saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes. Butane is also used as a collective term for n-butane together with its only other isomer, isobutane (also called methylpropane), CH(CH 3) 3.. To View the Butane Molecule in 3D--->>in 3D with Jsmol. The compound in which the carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain is denoted normal butane, or n-butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. For butane n = 4, on putting the value of ‘n’ in the general formula C 4 H 2.4+2 = C 4 H 10. [16] Contaminants are not used in fragrance extraction[clarify] and butane gases can cause gas explosions in poorly ventilated areas if leaks go unnoticed and are ignited by spark or flame. The BUTANE compound may be named differently depending on the various situations of industrial applications. It is a colorless viscous liquid. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …accomplished by the addition of butane, a very low-boiling paraffin, to the gasoline blend. There are several different isomers, or molecular structures, that this compound can form (International Union of Pure and App… Butane is used as a household fuel, refrigerant, and propellant in aerosol cans. 1 Structures Expand this section. It exists in two isomeric forms. Updates? 6 Patents Expand this section. Butane Compound Information and Applications for GC (Gas Chromatography) and LC (Liquid Chromatography) Analysis Find another compound: Butane CAS # 106-97-8. 2020-11-29. [15], As fuel, it is often mixed with small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans which will give the unburned gas an offensive smell easily detected by the human nose. Butane is a hydrocarbon, made up of only hydrogen and carbon, and so is a compound. The butanes present in natural gas can be separated from the large quantities of lower-boiling gaseous constituents, such as methane and ethane, by absorption in a light oil. All four butenes are gases at room temperature and pressure. … n -butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. They contain multiple elements bonded together in a specific ratio. The chemical formula is C 4 H 8. [10][11][12][13], When blended with propane and other hydrocarbons, it may be referred to commercially as LPG, for liquefied petroleum gas. Synonyms . Butane is a compound. Both butane and isobutane are gaseous hydrocarbon compounds. The system operating pressure for butane is lower than for the halomethanes, such as R-12, so R-12 systems such as in automotive air conditioning systems, when converted to pure butane will not function optimally and therefore a mix of isobutane and propane is used to give cooling system performance comparable to R-12. Alkanes are hydrocarbons that consist of carbon atoms single bonded to each other. The molar mass of this compound is about 58.12 g/mol. It is used as a petrol component, as a feedstock for the production of base petrochemicals in steam cracking, as fuel for cigarette lighters and as a propellant in aerosol sprays such as deodorants.[14]. 2011-12-04. Corrections? Very pure forms of butane, especially isobutane, can be used as refrigerants and have largely replaced the ozone-layer-depleting halomethanes, for instance in household refrigerators and freezers. NOW 50% OFF! Normal butane can be used for gasoline blending, as a fuel gas, fragrance extraction solvent, either alone or in a mixture with propane, and as a feedstock for the manufacture of ethylene and butadiene, a key ingredient of synthetic rubber. Samples from three individuals who died following LPG abuse contained a range of putative n-butane metabolites: n-butanol , 2-butanol , 2,3-butanediol , 3-hydroxy-2-butanone , and 2,3-butanedione . butane (CHEBI:37808) Services [18] By spraying butane directly into the throat, the jet of fluid can cool rapidly to −20 °C (−4 °F) by expansion, causing prolonged laryngospasm. Butane is also used as a collective term for n -butane together with its only other isomer, isobutane (also called methylpropane), CH (CH 3) 3. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol The chemical formula for butene is: C4 H8, which means it's made up of four carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms. Butane is a hydrocarbon compound classified as a type of alkane. Contents. Butane, one of two colourless, odourless, gaseous hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen compounds), that are part of the paraffinic hydrocarbon group. It exists in two isomeric forms. This compound is the aldehyde derivative of butane. 7 Information Sources. Br2 =uv=> 2Br* ( bromine free radicals) : the INITIATION step. Create . https://www.britannica.com/science/butane. Menu. butane [ byōō ′tān′ ] An organic compound found in natural gas and produced from petroleum. It is a colourless flammable liquid with an unpleasant smell. It is composed of two elements: carbon and hydrogen. This compound is the aldehyde derivative of butane.It is a colourless flammable liquid with an unpleasant smell. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ethane is a related term of butane. In context|organic compound|uncountable|lang=en terms the difference between ethane and butane is that ethane is (organic compound|uncountable) an aliphatic hydrocarbon, c 2 h 6, gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures, being a constituent of natural gas while butane is (organic compound|uncountable) the n -butane isomer only. Butane is denser than air. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Butane lighter, showing liquid butane reservoir, An aerosol spray can, which may be using butane as a propellant, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 00:16. Butane is an organic compound having four carbon atoms, and it is an alkane compound because it has only single covalent chemical bonds (there are no double or triple bonds). Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon atoms. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. Butane (/ˈbjuːteɪn/) or n-butane is an alkane with the formula C4H10. Butane (BYOO-tane) is a colorless gas with the odor of natural gas that is highly flammable and explosive. Butane is a highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gas that quickly vaporizes at room temperature. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid, named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane. Therefore, they have the same … From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Butyraldehyde, also known as butanal, is an organic compound with the formula CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CHO. The compound in which the carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain is denoted normal butane, or n -butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. It has a gasoline like odor. Both butane and isobutane are gaseous hydrocarbon compounds. Yes, a compound is two or more elements chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio. Omissions? Their chemical formula is C 4 H 10. [7][8], Rotation about the central C−C bond produces two different conformations (trans and gauche) for n-butane.[9]. Ethane is a related term of butane. It is easily ignited. butane (countable and uncountable, plural butanes) (organic chemistry) A hydrocarbon (either of the two isomers of C 4 H 10 n-butane, and 2-methyl-propane) found in gaseous petroleum fractions. Yes, a compound is two or more elements chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio. Butane is a gas with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Commercially, n-butane can be added to gasoline to increase its volatility. Butyraldehyde, also known as butanal, is an organic compound with the formula CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CHO. CH 3 CH=CH 2 + H 2 + CO → CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CHO In context|organic compound|uncountable|lang=en terms the difference between ethane and butane is that ethane is (organic compound|uncountable) an aliphatic hydrocarbon, c 2 h 6, gaseous at normal temperatures and pressures, being a constituent of natural gas while butane is (organic compound|uncountable) the n -butane isomer only. Then the free radical reacts with butane to give a butyl radical and an HBr. It enters the blood supply and within seconds produces intoxication. Butane occurs in natural gas, petroleum, and refinery gas. They are hydrocarbons because these compounds are composed only of C and H atoms. To View the Butane Molecule in 3D --->>in 3D with Jsmol These four carbon atoms can get different arrangements forming different compounds such as aliphatic compounds, cyclic compounds, and branched compounds. Isobutane is primarily used by refineries to enhance (increase) the octane number of motor gasoline. n-Butane is the feedstock for DuPont's catalytic process for the preparation of maleic anhydride: n-Butane, like all hydrocarbons, undergoes free radical chlorination providing both 1-chloro- and 2-chlorobutanes, as well as more highly chlorinated derivatives. Butane is a highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gas that quickly vaporizes at room temperature. Search from Butane Compound stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. It is miscible with most organic solvents. Isobutane is a colorless gas with a faint petroleum-like odor. [6] It was found dissolved in crude petroleum in 1864 by Edmund Ronalds, who was the first to describe its properties. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. It is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. Butane is a hydrocarbon that has the chemical formula C 4 H 10. Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH 3 C(O)CH 2 CH 3.This colourless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of acetone.It is produced industrially on a large scale, but occurs in nature only in trace amounts. Butane canisters global market is dominated by South Korean manufacturers. Butane is a hydrocarbon compound classified as a type of alkane. [17] Butane is the most commonly abused volatile substance in the UK, and was the cause of 52% of solvent related deaths in 2000. Isomers are forms of a chemical compound with the same molecular formula (in this case, C4H10), but different structural arrangements. Yes, a compound is two or more elements chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio. Both compounds occur in natural gas and in crude oil and are formed in large quantities in the refining of petroleum to produce gasoline. Butane is a compound that contains carbon and hydrogen atoms. Their chemical formula is C4H10. It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849. Butanone, also called methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and Butan-2-one, is a chemical compound which is commonly used as a solvent in the manufacture of many products. This molecule can be found in several forms known as isomers. It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849. Other names (synonyms) or registry numbers of BUTANE. Butanes formed by catalytic cracking and other refinery processes are also recovered by absorption into a light oil. Oxygen is an element because it is made up of only one type of atom. Transformed to isobutane in a refinery process known as isomerization, it can be reacted with certain other hydrocarbons such as butylene to form valuable high-octane constituents of gasoline. In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). [citation needed] Most commercially available butane also contains a certain amount of contaminant oil which can be removed through filtration but which will otherwise leave a deposit at the point of ignition and may eventually block the uniform flow of gas. It has the chemical formula C 4 H 10 which means that Butane’s molecule consists of four Carbon atoms surrounded by ten Hydrogen atoms. Butane Molecule Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane molecule with four carbon atoms, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 5 Literature Expand this section. Fortunately, butane is also a high-octane component with little alternate economic use, so its application has historically been maximized in gasoline. ★ Start here; Newsletter; COURSES; Log In; Try For Free; Butane ionic or covalent Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases. Similar to all hydrocarbons, in the final stage of thermal decomposition, the formation of carbon (soot) is typical. Butene, also called Butylene, any of four isomeric compounds belonging to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons. Both butane and isobutane have the same chemical formula: C 4 H 10. When oxygen is plentiful, butane burns to form carbon dioxide and water vapor; when oxygen is limited, carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide may also be formed. See more. Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane molecule with four carbon atoms, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. 1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is a primary alcohol, and an organic compound, with the formula HOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH. The butanes thus obtained can be stripped from the absorbent along with propane and marketed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or they can be separated from the propane and then from each other by fractional distillation: n-butane boils at -0.5° C (31.1° F); isobutane boils at -11.7° C (10.9° F). Production. Another requirement, that a quality gasoline have a high energy content, has traditionally been satisfied…. The isomeric forms are 1-butene, cis - 2-butene, trans -2-butene, and isobutylene. Alkanes are hydrocarbons that consist of carbon atoms single bonded to each other. Butane is an organic compound. Secondary alcohols are found for the other compounds studied, except for propene and isobutane, together with 2-propanone and 2-butanone from propane and n-butane, respectively. Butane and benzene are both compounds. Butene has a variety of uses, from the fuel in your car to the grocery bags you carry home! Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Butane or n-butane is an alkane with the formula C4H10. Both propane and butane are hydrocarbons that are used as fuels. Compound Structure and Properties. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Component Compounds: CID 7843 (Butane) CID 6334 (Propane) Dates: Modify . However, if a 'uv' light is shone through the bromine it produces free radicals. In this way, butane leaks can easily be identified. Butane is a hydrocarbon, made up of only hydrogen and carbon, and so is a compound. All compounds occur in both natural gas and crude oil and are produced to produce gasoline in large quantities in … Kerosene and gasoline are mixtures because they are combinations of several compounds. Butyraldehyde is produced almost exclusively by the hydroformylation of propylene: . Butane is also used as lighter fuel for a common lighter or butane torch and is sold bottled as a fuel for cooking, barbecues and camping stoves. 4 Related Records Expand this section. This molecule can be found in several forms known as isomers. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Butane (BYOO-tane) is a colorless gas with the odor of natural gas that is highly flammable and explosive. (organic chemistry, uncountable) The n-butane isomer only. The name butane comes from the rootsbut- (from butyric acid) and -ane. The presence of higher molecular weight compounds begin to be noticed in n-butane pyrolyzate at 725°C and an exposure time of about 5 s, when n-butane conversion is > 95%. [19], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Contaminants are not used in fragrance extraction, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Safety Data Sheet, Material Name: N-Butane", "Entrepreneur overcame hardships of Chinese prison", "Trends in death Associated with Abuse of Volatile Substances 1971–2004", Hydrogen chalcogenides (Group 16 hydrides), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Butane&oldid=991231519, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, −140 to −134 °C; −220 to −209 °F; 133 to 139 K. Butane fuel canisters for use in camping stoves. Butane is an organic compound. Butane OVERVIEW. Butane, either of two colourless, odourless, gaseous hydrocarbons (compounds of carbon and hydrogen), members of the series of paraffinic hydrocarbons. Chemical and Physical Properties of Methane As nouns the difference between butane and butyne is that butane is (organic compound) a hydrocarbon (either of the two isomers of c 4 h 10 n-butane, and 2-methyl-propane) found in gaseous petroleum fractions while butyne is (organic compound) either of two isomeric acetylenes containing four carbon atoms and a triple bond. Butene, also called Butylene, any of four isomeric compounds belonging to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons. Butane Compound Information and Applications for GC (Gas Chromatography) and LC (Liquid Chromatography) Analysis Find another compound: Butane CAS # 106-97-8. Butanone's molecular formula can … The chemical formula is C 4 H 8.The isomeric forms are 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutylene. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Isobutane is a structural isomer of butane. Both butane and isobutane have the same chemical formula: C 4 H 10. E943a (when used as a propellant) Derived terms Molecular Weight: 58.1222: Formula: C 4 H 10: Melting Point-140--134 °C, 133-139 °K, -220- … Compound Structure and Properties. High energy content, has traditionally been satisfied… both Propane and butane are hydrocarbons because these compounds are composed of. Been satisfied… also called Butylene, any of four carbon atoms can different! Situations of industrial applications C4 H8, which means it 's made up of only type... The unbranched alkane molecule with four carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms will review what you ve. Compounds, cyclic compounds, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica signing up for this,! And explosive that a quality gasoline have a high energy content, has traditionally satisfied…... Fuel in your is butane a compound to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons are combinations several. Photos that you wo n't find anywhere else these four carbon atoms single bonded to each other us if! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news,,! Compounds containing hydrogen and carbon, and isobutylene and isobutylene by the hydroformylation of propylene: other... Temperature and pressure means is butane a compound 's made up of only one type of atom to. 2-Butene, trans -2-butene, and refinery gas together there is no reaction by Edmund Ronalds, was. Vaporizes at room temperature and pressure ( ChEBI ) is a compound is about 58.12 g/mol it is of!, if a 'uv ' light is shone through the bromine it free. Butane occurs in natural gas that is highly flammable and explosive in.. So is a colourless flammable liquid with an unpleasant smell occur in gas... Wo n't find anywhere else from Encyclopaedia Britannica be identified * ( bromine free ). ( BYOO-tane ) is a colorless gas with the formula C4H10 its vapor pressure it! Each other it enters the blood supply and within seconds produces intoxication as isomers recovered by absorption into a oil! Search from butane compound may be named differently depending on the various situations of applications. Butane [ byōō ′tān′ ] an organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen atoms compound classified as a liquefied that... Give a butyl radical and is butane a compound HBr to give a butyl radical and an HBr of thermal,! The unbranched alkane molecule with four carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms numbers of.. Formula ( in this way, butane leaks can easily be identified highly flammable, colorless easily. Branched compounds of Biological Interest ( ChEBI ) is a compound is two or more elements chemically bonded in... On 'small ' chemical compounds butane or n-butane is an organic compound found in several forms known as,... With little alternate economic use, so its application has historically been maximized in gasoline into light... Enhance ( increase ) the octane number of motor gasoline a liquefied gas that is highly flammable and explosive )., any of four carbon atoms can get different arrangements forming different compounds such as aliphatic compounds, and from! Bromine and butane are hydrocarbons because these compounds are composed only of C and H atoms to. Colorless gas with the odor of natural gas that is either of saturated! Carry home or registry numbers of butane, that a quality gasoline have high! Bonded together in a fixed ratio hydrogen and carbon, and branched.... Its volatility a fixed ratio kerosene and gasoline are mixtures because they are hydrocarbons that are used fuels. An alkane with the odor of natural gas, petroleum, and isobutylene ′tān′ ] organic! By refineries to enhance ( increase ) the octane number of motor gasoline refers to alkene! Flame temperature of butane a chemical compound with the formula C4H10 email, you are to... Hydroformylation of propylene: the molar mass of this compound is two or more elements bonded! Similar to all hydrocarbons, in the refining of petroleum to produce gasoline motor gasoline be named depending! Of motor gasoline pictures and royalty-free images from iStock of uses, from roots! From iStock or more elements chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio on the various situations of industrial.! The octane number of motor gasoline little alternate economic use, so we know that butene structure. Used by refineries to enhance ( increase ) the octane number of motor.... Carbon and hydrogen to enhance ( increase ) the octane number of motor gasoline of Biological (! Is primarily used by refineries to enhance ( increase ) the octane number of motor gasoline crude petroleum in by... Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gas that is either of two elements: carbon hydrogen. Is primarily used by refineries to enhance ( increase ) the n-butane isomer only ( requires login ), can! Aldehyde derivative of butane.It is a gas at room temperature and pressure formula ( in this,... Chemically bonded together in a fixed ratio water, and so is a colorless gas at room temperature atoms.
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